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Ingress Part 1
Ingress Part 2
Ingress Part 3

Pods and ReplicaSets can be used to start and operate containers. Services can be handy to provide named access to and distribute and load balance requests across Pods, internally.

Most application systems have a public facing interface, too. In order to expose a web service or web application to outside world, an additional Kubernetes resource comes is useful: the Ingress.

In contrast to Kubernetes Services which operate on layer 4 (transport) of the ISO OSI model, Ingresses operate on layer 7 (application). This means that an Ingress knows the HTTP protocol and is able to read and interpret incoming HTTP requests enabling a number of additional options. A major benefit is the ability to create virtual hosts.

Virtual hosts address the challenge of pointing multiple domain names to a single IP address in a way that the "web server" is able to map domain names to the corresponding applications.

So with the Ingress concept it is possible to map incoming requests based on the desired domain contained in the HTTP Header to applications running within Kubernetes.

Ingress is not Built-In to Kubernetes

While Ingress is a Kubernetes concept, there is no built-in Kubernetes implementation. In Kubernetes terminology: Kubernetes does not ship with a default Ingress Controller. Therefore, each Kubernetes implementation may come with a different Ingress Controller which in turn may offer slightly different features and configuration options, but generally they are likely to cover the same core functionality.

One reason for this is that load balancing is a non-trivial problem to solve. It is used to enable highly available applications and is related to topics such as networking, DNS and SSL certificate management.

At some point there must be one or more highly available load balancers distributing incoming requests. These load balancers can be Kubernetes or infrastructure (e.g. AWS) provided software load balancers or even good old hardware appliances.

As a takeaway, it is worth spending a few minutes on looking at a particular Ingress implementation when using a particular Kubernetes distribution for the first time.

DNS Entries and SSL Certificates

It is easy to use kubectl proxy to access Kubernetes workloads as it does not require much configuration. However, exposing an application to the outside world usually requires the configuration of a domain or subdomain dedicated to the application such as

This is why Kubernetes can't do much for you as controlling DNS entries is out of its scope and so is requesting and issuing SSL certificates, but in the latter case there are extensions to help you to do so.

For the creation of DNS entries you might want to create:

  • An A-Record to point a (sub-)domain to the IP address of your load balancer.
  • A CNAME-Record to point a (sub-)domain to the DNS name of your load balancer.

The configuration of DNS entries varies across DNS providers. Their manuals will guide you through the process.

Creating local DNS entries for minikube

When using minikube you can create a local DNS entry by editing your /etc/hosts and pointing it to your minikube IP address. This way a DNS entry is created that is solely present on your computer, which will redirect requests of the specified URL to your running minikube cluster.

If you are running minikube on a hypervisor different from Docker you can get the minikube IP by executing :

minikube ip

With Docker, you will have to set up a tunnel, that will expose your cluster at, for that use

minikube tunnel

Now we have to add the DNS entry to our hosts file, execute

sudo nano /etc/hosts

The basic editor nano will now be used to open the file (Note: you can only navigate using keyboard inputs), there navigate to the end of the file and create your new entry for by inserting

Substitute by your minikube IP address if you are not using docker. Then press ^X and Y to save & exit.

Note: The IP of minikube might change if you restart it, so make sure to check your DNS entries if something does not work.

Now if you navigate to in your browser, the traffic will be redirected to minikube.

Creating a Self-Signed SSL Certificate

Securing websites with SSL encryption (HTTPS instead of HTTP) [1] has become a defacto standard. Therefore, it is worth dealing with the additional complexity here and show how an application on Kubernetes can be SSL encrypted.

First, it should be mentioned that the termination of the SSL certificate happens within the Ingress controller, in this example the ngninx ingress [2][3]. While most of this training has been applicable to most Kubernetes flavors, the Ingress is often specific to a particular Kubernetes distribution. So be prepared to search the documentation in case you want to apply this tutorial to a different Kubernetes cluster.

In order to enable the Ingress controller to terminate an SSL certificate, you either have to create one. If you want to get a free SSL certificate that will be ok for most browsers and surely better than a self-signed certificate have a look at Let's Encrypt [4].

For this example, a self-signed certificate will be good enough as the process of setting up the certificate is the same for trusted certificates.

Assuming you have installed openssl creating a self-signed SSL certificate for the domain can be achieved by issuing the following command:

openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout k9s.key -out k9s.crt -subj "/ /"

This will create the files k9s.key and k9s.crt which you will need during the creation of a TLS Secret.

Creating the TLS Secret

Creating a TLS Secret is straight forward:

kubectl create secret tls k9s-anynines-com-tls --key k9s.key --cert k9s.crt

This will read the files k9s.key and k9s.crt. As you can see the TLS Secret is a special type of Kubernetes Secret. Secrets will be covered in a later lesson in greater detail. For now, it's enough to know that a Secret is a set of key-value pairs managed by the Kubernetes API and stored in the Kubernetes etcd. The TLD Secret is special in so far that its keys are fixed to key and cert. This ensures that the Ingress knows where to look for both the key and certificate requires to utilize the SSL certificate.

Check whether the Secret has been created successfully:

kubectl get secrets

And describe it:

kubectl describe secret k9s-anynines-com-tls

You should see an output similar to:

Name:         k9s-anynines-com-tls
Namespace: k8s-training
Labels: <none>
Annotations: <none>


tls.crt: 1322 bytes
tls.key: 1704 bytes

You can see that both the key and certificate have been stored as tls.crt and tls.key. The Ingress controller will then retrieve these files by mounting them as files.

Now you are ready to create the actual Ingress object.

Creating an Ingress

On an a9s Kubernetes cluster creating an Ingress can be done by creating the file 40-ingress-hello-world-a9s.yaml:

kind: Ingress
name: smpl-go-web-ingress
# use the shared ingress-nginx 'nginx'
- hosts:
secretName: k9s-anynines-com-tls
- host:
- path: /
pathType: Prefix
name: smpl-go-web-s
number: 8080

Again: You may have to search the documentation of your Kubernetes cluster as the Ingress may require a different specification.

You can also see that annotations contains an element "nginx" declaring that the nginx-Ingress is to be used.

The tls section declares a list of hosts, in this case the domain Recognized how the SSL certificate for the domain is passed to the Ingress as a Secret with secretName: k9s-anynines-com-tls. As the TLS Secret type has a well known structure no further arguments are required.

Lastly, the actual web application is connected to the Ingress by mounting the application to the path /. When using many microservice apps, it can be handy to mount a set of microservices to a domain which will create the impression of a single application to the outside user. In our case, there is only one application. Note that there is no reference to a Pod, ReplicaSet or Deployment. Instead, the reference is to a Service smpl-go-web-s and its port 8080.

The Ingress is responsible for mapping external HTTP requests to particular applications. This connection is done by the Service. In other words: the Ingress - a layer 7 proxy - read the HTTP requests, extracts the host information and maps the incoming request to a layer 4 load balancer - the Service which in turn distributes the requests across its endpoints. In this case, our singe instance web app.

Apply it:

kubectl apply -f 40-ingress-hello-world-a9s.yaml

In order to verify whether the Ingress has been created list existing Ingresses:

kubectl get ingress

In the output you can obtain the URL in the HOSTS attribute it may look similar to

Since our certificate is self-signed, if you navigate to, your browser will warn you that you are using an insecure site and might not let you visit the page. You can still verify that everything is working by using

curl --insecure

Congratulations! You have successfully deployed a web application.

  1. Google Guidelines, Secure your site with HTTPS,
  2. Nginx,
  3. Nginx Ingress,
  4. Let's Encrypt,
  5. OpenSSL,